Vladimir Lenin, born April 22, 1870 and died January 21, 1924, was a Russian Communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He was the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then as a premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death.
Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbriski, Lenin developed an interest in revolutionary politics after the unfortunate execution of his brother in 1887. He attended the University of Kazan, but he was ejected for his involvement in some anti-terrorists protests. He then used the following years for getting a law degree, and to politics. After that, he decided to become a Marxist. Lenin’s theoretical contributions to Marxist are known as Leninism, which with Marxian Theory, have come to be known as Marxism – Leninism. In 1893 he moved to St. Petersburg He was then arrested for sedition and exiled to Siberia for three years; he married Nadezhda Krupskaya, and fled towards Western Europe. He then lived in Germany, England and Switzerland for a while, but after the February Revolution of 1917, in which the Tsar was overthrown and the government took power, he came home. As the leader of the Bolshevik part of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he took a senior role in commanding the October Revolution in 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government and the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world’s first constitutionally socialist state. Immediately afterwards, Lenin proceeded to socialist reforms, including the transfer of estates and lands to soviets. Faced with the threat of German invasion, he argued that Russia should immediately sign a peace treaty, which led to Russia’s exit from the First World War. In 1921 Lenin proposed the New Economic Policy, a system of state capitalism that started the process of industrialization and recovery from the Russian Civil War. In 1922, the Russian SFSR joined former territories of the Russian Empire in the Soviet Union, with Lenin as its leader. The Bolshevik part later became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which acted as a party presiding over a dictatorship. After his death, the theory Marxism–Leninism developed into a variety of schools of thought, like Stalism. Lenin remains a controversial and highly divisive world figure. Detractors have labeled him a dictator whose administration over performed multiple human rights abuses, but supporters have countered this criticism citing the limitations on his power and have promoted him as a champion of the working class. He has had a significant influence on the international Communist movement and was one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.